Let us first look at the simple definition of Wave.
In physics, a wave can be defined as a disturbance, which travels through a medium or no medium (vacuum) and propagates energy from one place (source) to another without the transportation of the matter.
Types of Waves
The waves can be broadly classified into two categories-
- Mechanical Wave (Longitudinal Wave and Transverse Wave)
- Electromagnetic Wave
- Also Read- Quantum Mechanical Model- Basic Definitions
The Mechanical Waves are the waves that require a medium to propagate or the mechanical waves require a medium to travel from one place to another.
Example- Sound Wave is a mechanical wave as it needs medium to travel (sound energy).
The two types of mechanical waves are- Longitudinal Wave and Transverse Wave
Longitudinal Wave- In this type of wave, the particles of the medium vibrate in the direction of propagation of the wave.
Examples- Waves on Springs, Sound Waves in air.
Transverse Wave- In this type of Wave, the particles of the medium vibrate perpendicular to the direction of propagation of the wave.
Examples of Transverse Wave- Waves on Strings under tension, Waves on the surface of the water.
Electromagnetic Wave- These are the waves that do not necessarily require a medium to propagate. It means electromagnetic waves can even travel through a vacuum.
Electromagnetic Wave travels with a velocity of Light. (3 × 108)
Examples of Electromagnetic Waves- Radio waves, X-rays, and Lightwave.