Polynomials Definition and Concepts
Contents
Polynomials Definition
A polynomial is an algebraic expression in which the variables involving are having nonnegative integral powers.
Examples 2x³+5x+2, 8y³+5xy+x2 etc.
Ok, lets now define the term Algebraic Expressions, variables and constants. It is very important for understanding the Polynomials definition.
Variables
A symbol (x,y,z,a,b,g,h etc.) that can be assigned different numerical values.
Example Area of a triangle = ½×base(b)×height(h), Here ‘b’ and ‘h’ can have different numerical values. So, ‘b’ and ‘h’ are variables.
Constants
Symbols having fixed numerical values are called constants.
For Example 2, 3, 1/2, 22/7, etc.
Algebraic Expressions
When we combine the variables and constants along with operations +, , ×, and ÷ (few or all), the result obtained is called an algebraic expression.
Example 2x³+5x+2,
Note This above expression contains 3 terms (Home Work Name these)
Coefficients
The numerical values associated with the variables in a polynomial are called coefficients. For example In the polynomial, 2x³+5x²+x+2 the coefficients of x³, x², x are 2, 5 and 1 respectively whereas 2 is the constant term.
Polynomials Degree

Degree of a Polynomial of one Variable
If a polynomial is in one variable, then the variable with the highest nonnegative integral power is called its degree.
Ex x³+8x²+x+2. Here there are 4 terms namely x³, 8x², x, 2 and the variable with the highest power is x³. So the degree of the above polynomial is 3.

Degree of a Polynomial of two or more Variables
In this case, we add the powers of the variables in each term, and the highest sum obtained is called its degree.
Ex 8y³+5x²y²+x2.
Degree of this polynomial is 4 (2nd Term i.e., 5x²y² = Sum of powers 2+2)
Various Polynomials Degree
 Linear Polynomial – Having degree 1. Ex x – 2
 Quadratic Polynomial Having degree 2. Ex y² + x – 2
 Cubic Polynomial Having degree 3. Ex 8y³ + 5x² + x
 Biquadratic Polynomial Having degree 4. Ex 8y³ + 5x²y² + x – 2
Constant Polynomial
A polynomial containing only one term, i.e, a constant term is called a constant polynomial. Its degree is zero.
Ex 2, 1/8 etc.
Zero Polynomial
A polynomial containing only one term, i.e, zero is called a zero polynomial. Its degree is not defined.
Quadratic Polynomials Factorization
Polynomials Factorization
When a given polynomial (x²9) is expressed as the product of polynomials (x3, x+3) each with a lower degree.
 Type1> If polynomial is of the form x²+bx+c
Find integers ‘p’ and ‘q’ such that p+q= b; and pq=c
Now, x²+bx+c = (x+p)(x+q)
 Type 2> If polynomial is of the form ax²+bx+c
Find integers ‘p’ and ‘q’ such that p+q= b; and pq=ac
Now, x²+bx+c = (ax+p)(ax+q)
Note Take care of minus() and plus(+) signs.
Polynomials Identities for Factorization
 (a²b²) = (a+b)(ab)
Ex (i) 16x²25y² (ii) x³x (iii) 3a³48
 (a+b+c) = a² + b² + c² + 2ab + 2bc + 2ca
Ex (i) 4a² + b² + c² – 4ab – 2bc + 4ca
 (x + y)³ = x³ + y³ + 3xy(x + y)
 (x – y)³ = x³ – y³ – 3xy(x – y)
Ex (i) 100³ (ii) 498³ (iii) (x5y)³ (iv) (8a+5b)³
 (x³ + y³) = (x + y)(x² – xy + y²)
 (x³ – y³) = (x – y)(x² + xy + y²)
 (x³ + y³ + z³ – 3xyz) = (x + y + z)(x² + y² + z² – xy – yz – zx)
 If (x + y + z) = 0 ⇒ (x³ + y³ + z³) = 3xyz
Must Read: 40+ Algebraic Identities formula