### Physical Meaning of the term Derivative

Contents

Instantaneous rate of change of function w.r.t independent variable. limit  (Δy/Δx) Δx→0

### Geometrical Meaning of the term Derivative

It gives the slope of the tangent drawn to the curve at x=a.

Tangent- It is the limiting case of the secant slope of the secant. Slope of Secant AB- mAB = f(a+h) – f(a) ⁄ (a + h – a)

f ’ (a+) = lim (h→0) f(a+h) – f(a) / h = slope of tangent at A from RHS

f ’ (a+) = Right hand derivative at x=a

mAB’ = f(a-h) – f(a) ⁄ (a – h – a)

f ’ (a) = lim (h→0) f(a+h) – f(a) / -h = slope of tangent at A from LHS

f ’ (a) = Left-hand derivative at x=a

If f ’(a+) = f ’(a) = a finite quantity, then f(x) is said to be differentiable at x=a; and in this case curve y = f(x) has a unique tangent (Not Shown) of finite slope at x = a.

f ’(a+) = f ’(a) = f ’(a) = finite slope of the tangent at x = 0.

THEOREM- If a function is differentiable at x=a then it is also continuous at x = a.

NOTE-

• Differentiability ⇒ Continuity
• Continuity  ⁄⇒ Differentiability
• Discontinuity ⇒ Non-Differentiability
• Non-Differentiability  ⁄⇒ Discontinuity

NOTE-  If f ’(a+) = p and  f ’(a) = q where ‘p’ and q” are finite values, then

• If p = q then f(x) is differentiable at x=a and continuous at x = a.
• If p ≠ q then f(x) is not differentiable at x = a, but may or may not be continuous at x = a.
• f(x) is not differentiable but continuous at x=a then the geometrical graph of the function has a sharp corner at x = a. For Example- See graph of  f(x) = |x|
• If the graph of the function exhibits a sharp corner at x=a, it means unit tangent can’t be drawn at x = a.

## Differentiability in an Interval

• A function is said to be differentiable in (a, b) if it is differentiable at each and every point of the interval.
• Differentiable at [a, b] if

It is differentiable in (a, b) f’ (a+) = limit(h→0) {(f(a+h)- f(a)) / h} = a finite quantity f’ (a) = limit(h→0) {(f(b-h)- f(a)) /- h} = a finite quantity

• All trigonometric, logarithmic, exponential and polynomial functions are differentiable in their domain (Inverse Trigonometric Functions are not included).

Note-

• Derivative in an interval should be checked at all those points where f(x) may be discontinuous.
• For |f(x)| differentiability should be checked at those points where f(x) = 0.

For Example- Consider a differentiable function f(x) whose graph is given as- Fig.- A |f(x)| → Fig.- B F(x) = 0 at A, B, C At x= A |f(x)| is derivable; but may or may not be derivable at x = B & C.

Q-> Try to solve these functions?

(i) f(x) = |x3| (ii) f(x) = |x(x-1)|(iii) f(x) = (x-1)|x2 – 3x + 2|

### Important Points to Remember

• If f(x) and g(x) both are differentiable function at x = a then f(x) ± g(x), f(x)×g(x) and f(x)/g(x)[g(x)≠0] will also be differentiable at x = a.
• If f(x) differentiable and g(x) is not differentiable at x = a then f(x) ± g(x) will not be differentiable but nothing definite can be said about derivative of function f(x) × g(x) and f(x)/g(x)[where g(x) ≠ 0] at x = a.
• If f(x) and g(x) both are not differentiable at x = a then nothing definite can be said about derivative of function f(x) × g(x) and f(x)/g(x) [where g(x)≠0] at x = a.
• A derivative of a continuous function need not be continuous.

Ex- f(x)= Two cases Case-1 f(x)= x2sin(1/x);  x≠0 Case-2 f(x)= 0;  x=0

• If f(x) is derivable at x = a and f(a)=0 and g(x) is continuous at x = a then product function f(x)g(x) will also be derivable at x =a.
• If f(x) is differentiable at x = a and p(h) and g(h) approaches to zero as h → 0

limit (h→0) f(a+p(h)) – f(a+ g(h))/ p(h)- g(h) = f’(a)

### Determination of functions which are differentiable and satisfying some given functional rule

Four Basic Steps

• Write the expression for f'(x) whether LHD or RHD

f'(x) = limit(h→0) {f(x+h) – f(x)}/ h

• Manipulate f(x+h)-f(x) using functional rule and get f'(x) in its simplifying form.
• Integrate both sides and f(x) with the constant of its integration.
• Using a suitable value of ‘x’, get the value of the constant of integration.

Methods of Differentiation

### Symbols used for derivative

dy/dx or f ‘(x) or D(y) or  y’ or y1       First Order Derivative

d2y/dx2  or f ”(x) or D2(y) or  y” or  y2  → Second Order Derivative

### Derivative of some standard Functions

• d(xn)/dx =nxn-1   n ∈ R; x>0
• d(ax)/dx =aln a    a>0
• d(ex)/dx =ex
• d(ln x)/dx = 1/x

### Trigonometric Functions

• d(sin x)/dx = cos x
• d(cos x)/dx = -sin x
• d(sec x)/dx = sec x tan x
• d(cosec x)/dx = -cot x cosec x
• d(tan x)/dx = sec2 x
• d(cot x)/dx = cosec2 x

### Inverse Trigonometric Functions

• d(sin-1x)/dx = 1/(1-x2)1/2        -1<  x <1
• d(cos-1x)/dx = -1/(1-x2)1/2      -1<  x <1
• d(cot-1x)/dx = -1/(1+x2)             x∈ R
• d(tan-1x)/dx = 1/(1+x2)              x∈ R
• d(sec-1x)/dx = 1/|x|(x2-1)1/2     |x|>1
• d(cosec-1x)/dx = -1/|x|(x2-1)1/2   |x|>1

### Rules in Differentiation

#### Sum or Difference Rule

If h (x) = f(x) ± g (x)

then h’ (x) = f ‘(x) ± g’ (x)

#### Constant Multiple Rule

If h (x) = k f(x) where k is any constant h’ (x) = k f ‘(x)

#### Product Rule

h (x) = f(x) × g (x) then h’ (x) = f ‘(x) g (x) + g’ (x) f(x) Note- (fgh)’ = (fg)h’ + (fh)g’ + (gh)f ‘ or (fhg)’ = {f(gh)’ + g(fh)’ + h(fg)’}/2

#### Quotient Rule

d{f(x)/g(x)}/dx = {f ‘(x) g (x) + g’ (x) f(x)}/g2(x) Also- d{1/f (x)}/dx = – f ‘(x)/f2(x)

#### Chain Rule

If y = f(t); t = g(u); u = h(x) then, dy/dx = dy/dt × dt/du × du/dx = f ‘(t) × g'(u) × h'(x)