These Geography Notes will help you understand the basic definitions and properties Latitude and Longitude.
- The lines that run parallel to the equator.
- These lines are called Parallels or Latitudes.
- They are numbered from zero degrees to 90 degrees, the equator is at 0 degrees.
- The North Pole is at 90 degrees North and the South Pole is at 90 degrees South.
The other important Latitudes are-
- The Tropic of Cancer
- The Tropic of Capricorn
- The Arctic Circle
- The Antarctic Circle
Properties of Latitudes
- The Equator is the largest latitude. It is also called the Great Circle.
- Latitudes don’t touch or cut each other.
- All latitudes are complete circles, except the North Pole and the South Pole which are points.
- All latitudes are located at an equal distance from each other.
- There are 181 latitudes.
- Latitudes are marked in degrees (°) and minutes (‘), where 60’ = 1°.
- The semi-circles running from the North Pole to the South Pole are called Longitudes or Meridians.
- The word Meridian means ‘midday’.
- Longitudes are equal in length, unlike the Latitudes.
- They are 360 in numbers.
- The Meridian passing through Greenwich near London is taken as a 0-degree meridian.
- This Meridian is also called the Prime Meridian.
- Meridians to the East of Prime Meridians are called East Meridians and those to the West are called West Meridians.
- There are 180 meridians to the east of the Prime Meridian and 180 meridians to the west of the Prime Meridian.
- India is located to the east of the Prime Meridian.
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Properties of Longitudes
- All Longitudes are equal in length.
- Longitudes cross the latitude at right angles.
- The distance between any two longitudes decreases as one moves away from the equator towards the Poles.
- Longitudes are marked in degrees and minutes.
The Grid System
- The longitudes and longitudes intersect each other and form squares called Grids.
- This network of Grids is known as the Grid System.
- It helps us to locate places accurately on the globe and maps.
- The point that crosses each other will be the location of that place.
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